CODEX THEODOSIANUS


The Codex Theodosianus is a collection of laws, compiled by order of Emperor Theodosius II and completed in 438 AD.


13.5.4
(Thessalonica, March 8th 324 AD; addressed to Helpidius)
Ex quocumque hispaniae litore portum urbis romae navicularii navis intraverit, quae onus dumtaxat fiscale subvexerit, eandem sine interpellatione cuiusquam abire praecipimus nec ulli extraordinario oneri deservire, ut facilius iniuncta sibi possit implere obsequia. If the ship of any shipmaster should enter the port of the City of Rome from any shore in Spain whatsoever, provided this ship should carry a fiscal cargo, We command that the aforesaid ship shall depart without any claim by any person. It shall not be subject to any extraordinary burden, and thus it may more easily fulfill the services enjoined upon it.

13.5.38
(Ravenna, September 17th 414 AD; addressed to Albinus, Praefectus Urbi)
... si quando navicularius extra modum centesimarum diametrum incidisset, intra quinque dies, ex quo portum venerabilis urbis esset ingressus, ..., quid evenisset detrimenti, inquireret ... ... if a shipmaster should ever incur a shortage beyond the measure of the percentage allowed, within five days of the time when he enters the port of the venerable City, ..., the prefect of the City shall investigate what shortage has occurred ...

14.4.9
(Ravenna, December 26th 417 AD; addressed to Palladius, Praefectus Praetorio)
Ad excludendas patronorum caudicariorum fraudes et portuensium furta mensorum unus e patronis totius consensu corporis eligatur, qui per quinquennium custodiam portuensium suscipiat conditorum, ... In order to eliminate the fraudulent practices of the patrons of the raftsmen and the thievery of the grain measurers of the port, one of the patrons shall be selected by common consent of the whole guild, and he shall undertake the custody of the port stores for a period of five years ...

14.6.3
(August 6th 365 AD; addressed to Volusianus, Vicarius)
Hoc autem excepto a Tarracinensis praestationis canone suggera, quae vetusto praeberi fari ac Portus usibus more consuevit. Moreover, this exception shall be made from the regular tax of the payment of Terracina which is customarily assigned, according to ancient usage, to the requirements of the lighthouse and the Port.

14.15.2
(Reims, June 14th 366 AD; addressed to Julianus, Praefectus Annonae)
Nautici aput curatorum vel magistratuum acta fateantur incorruptas sese species suscepisse eorumque, aput quos deponitur ista testatio, praesens aspectus probet nihil in his esse vitii. quod eo tempore, quo ad sacrae urbis portum pervenit, praefecturam iugiter observare praeceptum est. Shipmasters shall declare in the records of the municipal curators and magistrates that they have received unspoiled supplies, and those persons before whom such attestation is deposed must prove by personal inspection that there are no imperfections in such supplies. The office of the prefect is commanded always to observe the same proceeding at the time when the supplies arrive at the Port of the sacred City.

14.15.4
(Milan, April 12th 398 AD; addressed to Flavius Mallius Theodorus, Praefectus Praetorio)
Simili autem poena teneantur, qui aliquid ex his horreis cellulisve, quae intra urbem romam adque in portu constitutae pistorio iure retinentur, sibimet tamquam possessione privata ausi fuerint vindicare. Moreover, by a similar punishment those persons shall be constrained who have dared to vindicate for themselves, as though by private possession, any supplies from the State storehouses or the small storerooms which are established within the City of Rome and the Port and which are held under the control of the breadmakers.

14.19.1
(Milan, April 12th 398 AD; addressed to Flavius Mallius Theodorus, Praefectus Praetorio)
De pretio panis ostiensis. Panem Ostiensem adque fiscalem uno nummo distrahi volumus. Sancimus autem, ut nullus per sacrum rescribtum audeat pretium ampliare; qui si obtulerit supplicationem, duarum librarum auri multa ferietur. The price of Ostian bread. It is our will that Ostian and fiscal bread shall be sold for one nummus. Furthermore, we sanction that no person by the authority of a sacred imperial rescript shall dare to increase the price, and if any person should offer such a supplication to the Emperor, a fine of two pounds of gold shall be inflicted upon him.

14.22.1
(Nish, June 8th 364 AD; addressed to Symmachus, Praefectus Urbi)
De saccariis portus romae. Omnia, quaecumque advexerint privati ad portum urbis aeternae, per ipsos saccarios vel eos, qui se huic corpori permiscere desiderant, magnificentia tua iubeat comportari et pro temporum varietate mercedes considerata iusta aestimatione taxari, ita ut, si claruerit aliquem privatum per suos adventicias species comportare, quinta pars eius speciei fisco lucrativa vindicetur. Porters of the port of Rome. If private citizens should convey anything to the Port of the Eternal City, Your Magnificence shall command that all of it shall be transported by the porters themselves, or by those persons who desire to unite with that guild. In accordance with the variations produced by different seasons, the merchandise shall be assessed with a well considered and just appraisal, so that if it should appear that any private citizen had transported his imported wares through his own helpers, a fifth part of said ware shall be vindicated to the profit of the fisc.

14.23.1
(Altinum, March 27th 400 AD; addressed to Messala, Praefectus Praetorio)
De patronis horreorum portuensium. Patronos horreorum portuensium singulis tantum annis praeesse decernimus omni subreptione cessante, ne umquam veteris erogationis ratiocinium novis commeatibus inseratur. nec ultra tempus constitutum quispiam sibi administrationem horreorum portuensium fraudulenter usurpet, nisi prioris anni ratiocinio ante deducto in alium annum quasi fidelis iam et idoneus subrogetur. Patrons of the State storehouses of the Port. We decree that patrons of the State storehouses of the Port shall be in charge of the administration for only one year. All surreptitious devices shall cease, and the accounts of the old issue of public supplies shall never be inserted in the account of the new supplies. No person shall fraudulently usurp for himself the administration of the State storehouses of the Port beyond the statutory time limit, unless the account of the previous year has been deducted beforehand and he should be chosen for another year, on the ground that he is faithful and responsible.

15.1.12
(Nish, June 8th 364 AD; addressed to Symmachus)
Horrea fiscalia apud urbem romam nec non etiam portus in usus translata privatos cognovimus. haec ad pristinum....Inferioribus horreorum frumenta condantur, quae natura loci et umore vitiantur. annonas quoque horreis antiquitus deputatas hos redhibere compelles, qui eas in damna publica ausi sunt occupare, quarum substantiam enthecae populi romani proficere praecipies. sane quos invenies fabricarum destructionis auctores, ad reparationem necessario tenebis. We have learned that fiscal storehouses in the City of Rome and also in the Port have been converted to private uses. You shall take care to restore such storehouses to their former condition. Grain must not be stored in the lower stories of such storehouses, for it is spoiled by the nature of the place and the moisture. If any persons, to the public detriment, have dared to appropriate the food supplies that were anciently assigned to the storehouses, you shall compel them to restore them, and you shall direct that the substance of such supplies shall go to the benefit of the treasury of the people of Rome. Of course, you shall compel those persons whom you find to be authors of the destruction of buildings to make necessary restoration.

Translation: Clyde Pharr.