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Graffiti - public version

ID
Category
Description
G0277 Alphabet

Greek text

Part of the Greek alphabet.

Photograph

G0276 Alphabet

Greek text

Part of the Greek alphabet?

Photograph

G0373 Alphabet

Greek text

The beginning of the Greek alphabet.

G0167 Alphabet

Greek text

The Greek alphabet on lines 3 and 4.

G0426 Alphabet

Part of the alphabet (OPQRSTVXY).

Photograph ICCD N14856

G0161 Amphitheatre and circus

A gladiator with arm outstretched.

Photograph

G0386 Amphitheatre and circus

A gladiator with shield and helmet. Possibly this is a secutor, to which the letter S in the upper left part may refer. To the right is a trident, a weapon used by the retiarius, a regular opponent of the secutor.

Photograph.

Photograph by Jan Theo Bakker - the discovery by Simon Bakker.

Photograph by Jan Theo Bakker (high resolution).

G0387 Amphitheatre and circus

A quadriga.

Photograph

Photograph by Jan Theo Bakker - taking the picture after the discovery.

G0129 Amphitheatre and circus

Drawing

A gladiator looking towards his left.

Photograph

G0084 Amphitheatre and circus

Drawing

Androm(achus) iii ca(lendas) Apr(iles) | Bal(erianus) iiii non(as) Mai(as).

It has been suggested that this graffito is about gladiators. The dates are March 30 and May 4.

G0029 Amphitheatre and circus

Drawing

Drawing

According to the excavator "... two gladiators in combat, one of which fully armed with fasciae, manica, galea and a rectangular shield. Above the figure the name TAVRVS ..."

Others suggest that the drawing is of a judge and a victorious gladiator (retiarius), and read above the drawing the inscription:

GLAPHYRINVS / BAETICVS TAVR[VS]

Photograph.

G0270 Amphitheatre and circus

QV SECVNDA FORMOSA
BINII QUII BIN
TVA
FACIIS AGITANTI PRASINI
CRIS
PI

The first part seems to be about a beautiful girl, Secunda. For line 3 cf. Suetonius, Nero 22: prasinum agitatorem, a Green charioteer in the games at the circus. The factio prasina was the party of charioteers who dressed in green. The graffito brings to mind the paintings of charioteers in the building.

Photograph

Photograph ICCD N5407 (centre)

G0036b Animals

A horse's head.

Photograph

Photograph ICCD N5387 (small, towards the left, legs also visible)

Photograph ICCD N5388 (small, towards the bottom, legs also visible)

G0036a Animals

A horse's head.

Photograph

G0036j Animals

A ram's head.

Photograph

G0399 Animals

A two-headed horse or wolf?.

Photograph

G0350 Animals

Drawing

A horse or cow?

Photograph.

G0136 Animals

Drawing

Photograph

G0331 Animals

Drawing

A snake with a comb on its head.

Photograph

G0016 Animals

Drawing

An elephant showing 'criss-cross' markings, a technique frequently used with drawings of animals. Several deer are drawn like this at Herculaneum, as is a horse at Dura Europus.

Photograph.

G0147 Animals

Drawing

Perhaps about the sale of pigs (porci).

G0391 Animals

Drawing

The head of an animal.

G0257 Animals

MII/\I VIS . OVIIS NATI

About the birth of sheep?

G0264 Commercial texts

* III
A VIII
A VIII

* = denarii, A = asses.

G0357 Commercial texts

• Photographs:

Details, low resolution:
A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H1 | H2
Overviews, low resolution:
ABCD | CDEF | GH
Details, high resolution (Jan Theo Bakker):
G-H | I (new) | A-B | C-D | E-F

Photograph ICCD E40903 (upside down)

Open this PDF to see what we read after high resolution photographs were made in 2009.

Most of these graffiti are dates related to the receiving of money. A year has not been found. Sometimes text was cancelled by horizontal lines. For some reason, during a number of months, registration took place on a wall. Quite interesting is the text: "On August 28 it is thundering here" (hic tonat). A reference to a thunderstorm seems unlikely. Perhaps a quarrel is meant, or even an earthquake.

G0355 Commercial texts

accepti (denarii) XXV K(alendis) Decenb(ribus)

About money received on December 1st.

G0368 Commercial texts

COIIMIAXCFVDI RIVA

Perhaps Coemi a(ssibus) XC, fudi riva[lem]: "I bought it for 90 asses, I beat my rival", referring to an auction.

G0374 Commercial texts

DIINARIOS XXVII

A text referring to money. Next to a drawing of a lizard.

G0258 Commercial texts

Drawing

PANIIM A VIII
LIGNA A V

About the purchase of bread and wood (or a wooden writing-tablet), paid with a(sses).

Photograph

Photograph ICCD N5248 (right part only)

G0366 Commercial texts

IIII BYTIRRI
OLEVM X FRVMII

The graffito mentions butter, oil and grain (frume[ntum]).

G0309 Commercial texts

PRIMODIII
* VII
S
ECVNDO NISV
* VII
I
NTIIRTIO
* X

Apparently the registration of the payment of denarii on the first, second and third day.

Photograph

G0216 Complex structures

A grid or gaming board.

Photograph

G0240 Complex structures

A grid.

Photograph

G0006 Complex structures

A map or a machine?

Photograph.

G0335 Complex structures

A map?

The first photo is in reality also above the second one. The two photos partly overlap.

Photographs

• Photographs by Jan Theo Bakker

Overview
Top part
Central part
Lower part

G0007 Complex structures

A rectangular shape with (partly inscribed) lines.

Photograph.

G0010 Complex structures

A structure and perhaps a human figure.

Photograph.

G0362 Complex structures

Concentric circles and a few straight lines.

Photograph.

G0346 Complex structures

Drawing.

Photograph.

G0125 Complex structures

Drawing

Photograph

G0115 Complex structures

Drawing

Photograph

G0121 Complex structures

Drawing

A plan of two buildings?

Photograph

G0316 Complex structures

Drawing

A structure looking like a millstone in a bakery.

Photograph

G0197 Complex structures

Lines.

Photograph

G0198 Complex structures

Lines.

Photograph

G0020 Complex structures

Long and short lines.

Photograph.

G0359 Complex structures

Profile of an object.

The architrave of a temple or public building?

Photograph.

G0053 Complex structures

X I I I I I I I I I and lines.

Photograph

G0212 Dates

Drawing

K VX IVNIVS | IVLIAS

Photograph

Photograph ICCD N5420

Photograph ICCD N5421

G0022 Dates

Drawing

Many dates can be read (apparently January 18-26 and March 26 in the first column, February 11 in the second). The word centenarium refers to something consisting of or relating to one hundred, such as a pistrinum centenarium, a bakery for which a minimum investment was needed or which handled a minimum amount of grain.

G0266 Dates

Drawing

V IDVS MARTIAS

March 11.

Photograph

Photograph

G0265 Dates

Drawing

V K OCT VIINIT

K = KAL. About the arrival of someone on September 28.

Photograph

G0028 Dates

Drawing

VII ID IVN

June 7th.

Photograph.

G0027 Dates

Drawing

VII Kal Commodas.

Commodus had introduced a month called Commodus (August or perhaps September). After his death the original name was restored. Cf. CIL XIV, 2113 (Lavinium).

Photograph.

G0143 Dates

II KAL MAR

February 29.

G0278 Dates

III K

Photograph

G0333 Dates

III K

Photograph

Photograph ICCD N5270

G0370 Dates

III N DIICIIMBRIIS
SPANILLA P[---]XXIX
MOD MAFA[---]TV

December 3rd.

G0306 Dates

III NONAS APRILIIS

April 3rd.

G0379 Dates

Imp(eratore) Antonino III
e(t) Comazonte II co(n)s(ulibus)
VIII Idus Aug(ustas)

August 6, 220 AD.

Photograph ICCD E40880 (turned 90 degrees)

G0310 Dates

IV IDVS

Photograph

G0467 Dates

K MART IDVS | IVLIAS.

Photograph ICCD N5424

G0296 Dates

M CAVIO SQUILLA GALLICANO
SEX CARMINIO VETERE
[co(n)s(ulibus)]

A consular date: 150 AD.

G0329 Dates

Tallymarks and dates (February 13, March 18).

Photographs

Photograph by Jan Theo Bakker

Photograph by Jan Theo Bakker

Photograph by Jan Theo Bakker

• Photographs ICCD:

N5261 (tallymarks, part of IDVS FEB)
N5262 (tallymarks, IDVS FEB, XV K APR)
N5263 (tallymarks and dates)
N5264 (tallymarks, IDVS FEB, XV K APR)
N5265 (tallymarks and dates)

G0452 Dates

V IDVS OCT ...

Photograph ICCD N14849

Photograph ICCD N14869

G0241 Dates

V K A . . . A

Photograph

G0163 Dates

XII K__L
XII

Photograph

G0219 Dates

XII K

Photograph

G0445 Erotica

CINEDVS PEDICATVR | ... Note the lines through part of the text.

Photograph ICCD N14851

G0293 Erotica

CRVSEROS AMAS ADAMA
APELLA CRVSIDE . IVSTVS IANVAR[---]VS
PLVRIMA

"Chrysis, you love Chryseros, but he loves Apella. Many greetings from Iustus Ianuarius".

Line 3 was written in the right half of the graffito.

G0280 Erotica

Drawing

[---]IANVARIA NUGAS ES
VIDVS SCRIPSIT
[---]IMISS[---]VIISTI NII IIOVS
C R O V
IIST
AMATOR
[---]AII NIIVA[---]IIS
[--]AC
[---]N

About a frivolous girl, Ianuaria, and a lover.

Lines 2, 4 and 5 were written in the right half of the graffito.

Photograph

Photograph ICCD N5409

G0063 Erotica

Drawing

A phallus and text.

Photograph

Photograph by Jan Theo Bakker (high resolution).

G0078 Erotica

Drawing

A phallus.

Photograph

G0034 Erotica

Drawing

According to the excavator: Agathopus et Prima et Epaphroditus tres convenientes.

Others suggests: Agathopus et Prima et (four deleted letters) Mod(e)stus tres convenientes.

"Agathopus and Prima (or: Primus?) and Epaphroditus (or: Modestus) had a threesome".

Photographs.

G0035 Erotica

Drawing

According to the excavator: Cepholus et Musice duo conve | nientes.

Others suggests: Nicephorus et Musice duo convenientes.

"Cepholus (or: Nicephorus?) and Musice came together".

Photograph.

G0313 Erotica

Drawing

COLONICV(S)
LINGIT SET QUIT
LINGIT NESSCIO CVNNV[---]

Apparently about licking a c**t. Above an erotic drawing (phallus).

Photograph

Photograph by Jan Theo Bakker

G0030 Erotica

Drawing

Hermadion cinaedus.

"You are a faggot, Hermadion".

G0033a-b Erotica

Drawing

Two graffiti, one on top of the other.

Hic ad Callin[i]cum
futui orem anum (palma)
amicom [---] re nolite r
in aedi ( or: [c]inaede) [---]

"Here I had oral and anal intercourse with my friend in the inn of Callinicus (or: with my sea-going friend Callinicus?). Do not ...". This graffito was written first. Callinicus was probably the owner (vilicus) of the building.

Livius me cunus
lincet Tertulle cunnu ov[---]
Efesius Terpsilla amat.

"Livius licks my c**t (or: Livius, that faggot, licks me?). Tertullus ... c**t (or: faggot?) ... Efesius loves Terpsilla (or: Terisius?)". This is the second graffito.

Photograph

Photograph

Photograph ICCD N5385

Photograph ICCD N5386

G0385 Erotica

Ego memini quemda(m) crissasse puella(m),
cuius cineres aurea terra tegat

"I remember touching the buttocks of a certain girl,
whose ashes the golden earth covers".

From a tomb.

G0508 Erotica

Greek text

A Greek text, referring to a depilator or perhaps rather an erotic allusion.

G0253 Erotica

HICAMOR
HABITAT

"Love lives here".

Photograph

Photograph ICCD N5250 (at left end)

G0284 Erotica

LVCILA FORMOSA
TIBI IIS N
ITA
NIS SIS AMA

About a beautiful girl, Lucilla.

Photograph

G0286 Erotica

M/\MIVS SALIVS
FORMOS
VS

About a beautiful man.

Line 2 was written in the right half of the graffito.

Photograph

G0299 Erotica

PVPA V(ale) SAL(utem)

"Darling (doll), hello, greetings!"

G0324 Famous buildings

A temple, or public building.

Photograph

G0390 Famous buildings - Lighthouse of Portus

Drawing

The lighthouse in Portus, next to Trajan's column. The upper left part has recently disappeared.

Photograph

Photograph ICCD N5281

G0230 Famous buildings - Lighthouse of Portus

Drawing

The lighthouse in Portus.

Photograph

Photograph

G0446 Famous buildings - Lighthouse of Portus

The lighthouse of Portus.

Photograph ICCD N14872

G0510 Famous buildings - Lighthouse of Portus

The lighthouse of Portus.

Photograph (high resolution).

G0228 Famous buildings - Trajan's column

Old photo

A drawing of Trajan's column with the text:

PVTE[olanus?] | H | HIERON PI | NXIT.

"On the western wall of the porticoed corridor someone called Hieron, of Greek origin, has signed the oldest, perhaps unique, depiction of Trajan's Column in Rome, drawn with great care and precision. The Ostia lighthouse is drawn several times with varying degrees of success and, on the same wall, a careful hand has minutely drawn a kind of small board divided into squares, more or less like our modern game of chess" (R. Calza). The upper part has recently disappeared.

Photograph

Photograph

Photograph ICCD N5281

Old drawing of the column

Photo of the lower part of the column

G0120 Frames for writing

Drawing

Photograph

G0213 Frames for writing

Drawing

A tabula ansata.

Photograph

G0113 Frames for writing

Drawing

Tabula ansata.

Photograph

G0184 Frames for writing

IATVM in an unfinished tabula ansata (left ansa missing). The thickness of the letters and the position, on the bottom line and not in the centre, suggest that we read here the English name Tatum. The tabula ansata may be modern as well.

Photograph

Photograph by Jan Theo Bakker.

G0229 Games

A gaming board.

Photograph

G0077 Games

Drawing

A gaming board? Modern?

Photograph

G0186 Games

Drawing

The 1 on a dice. The second in a row of three dice.

Photograph

G0187 Games

Drawing

The 4 on a dice. The third in a row of three dice.

On the three dice the numbers are 6, 1 and 4, perhaps intended as the numerical palindrome VIIIV.

Photograph

Photograph by Jan Theo Bakker.

G0185 Games

Drawing

The 6 on a dice. The first in a row three dice.

Photograph

G0031 Geometric and vegetative motifs

(palma)

G0418 Geometric and vegetative motifs

Photograph

G0414 Geometric and vegetative motifs

Photograph

G0413 Geometric and vegetative motifs

Photograph

G0410 Geometric and vegetative motifs

Photograph

G0415 Geometric and vegetative motifs

Photograph

G0437 Geometric and vegetative motifs

A branch.

Photograph ICCD N14860

G0347 Geometric and vegetative motifs

A circle with an inscribed cross.

Photograph.

G0001 Geometric and vegetative motifs

A circle with an inscribed cross.

Photograph.

G0342 Geometric and vegetative motifs

A cross in a circle.

Photograph.

G0179 Geometric and vegetative motifs

A drawing of metal decoration?

Photograph

G0178 Geometric and vegetative motifs

A few lines forming triangles.

Photograph

G0175 Geometric and vegetative motifs

A geometrical pattern.

Photograph

G0002 Geometric and vegetative motifs

A rectangle with inscribed lines, looking like a simple plan.

Photograph.

G0059 Geometric and vegetative motifs

A square with inscribed lines.

Photograph

G0172 Geometric and vegetative motifs

A wheel?

Photograph

G0166 Geometric and vegetative motifs

A wheel?

Photograph

G0165 Geometric and vegetative motifs

A wheel?

Photograph

G0451 Geometric and vegetative motifs

Branches.

Photograph ICCD N14853

G0396 Geometric and vegetative motifs

Drawing.

Photograph

G0079 Geometric and vegetative motifs

Drawing

Photograph

G0075 Geometric and vegetative motifs

Drawing

Photograph

G0189 Geometric and vegetative motifs

Drawing

Photograph

G0191 Geometric and vegetative motifs

Drawing

Photograph

G0188 Geometric and vegetative motifs

Drawing

Photograph

G0190 Geometric and vegetative motifs

Drawing

Photograph

G0118 Geometric and vegetative motifs

Drawing

Photograph

G0124 Geometric and vegetative motifs

Drawing

Photograph

G0123 Geometric and vegetative motifs

Drawing

Photograph

G0064 Geometric and vegetative motifs

Drawing

A circle with inscribed lines.

Photograph

G0056 Geometric and vegetative motifs

Drawing

A circle with inscribed lines.

Photograph

G0114 Geometric and vegetative motifs

Drawing

Concentric circles, perhaps a rope coiled on the deck of a ship.

Photograph

G0080 Geometric and vegetative motifs

Drawing

Lines looking like a plan.

Photograph

G0196 Geometric and vegetative motifs

Drawing

Rectangle drawn over the head on a wall painting.

Photograph

G0117 Geometric and vegetative motifs

Drawing

Two helices, the one on the left vertical, the one on the right horizontal.

Photograph

G0204 Geometric and vegetative motifs

Geometrical design.

It looks as though this drawing has not been completed.

Photograph

Photograph ICCD N5423

G0203 Geometric and vegetative motifs

Geometrical design.

Photograph

G0398 Geometric and vegetative motifs

Geometrical design.

Photograph

G0202 Geometric and vegetative motifs

Geometrical design.

It looks as though a mistake has been made in this drawing, which as a result has not been completed.

Photograph

G0004 Geometric and vegetative motifs

Three objects looking like a branch, a stick and a bracelet.

Photograph.

G0406 Human figures

Photograph

G0363 Human figures

A face?

Photograph.

G0060 Human figures

A head or torso?

Photograph

G0082 Human figures

A human figure.

Photograph

G0036i Human figures

A human figure.

Photograph

G0036h Human figures

A human figure.

Photograph

G0036l Human figures

A human torso.

Photograph

G0036c Human figures

A male figure.

Photograph

Photograph ICCD N5290

G0382 Human figures

BVRDO

The text accompanies a rough bust of a young man with bulla.

G0513 Human figures

Drawing of a person.

Photograph (high resolution).

Photograph with drawing (high resolution).

G0351 Human figures

Drawing

One of three heads found one above the other.

Photograph.

G0130 Human figures

Drawing

A head looking towards his left.

Photograph

G0176 Human figures

Drawing

A male, winged head. Perhaps a representation of a wind.

Photograph

G0352 Human figures

Drawing

One of three heads found one above the other.

Photograph.

G0353 Human figures

Drawing

One of three heads found one above the other.

Photograph.

G0081 Human figures

Drawing

The headware being worn in this drawing seems identical to examples described by Langner (2001) at Aphrodisias, Pompeii and Delphi. One explanation of what is happening is that a tibia is being played. It may also be a modern custodian or archaeologist, smoking a cigar.

Photograph

G0375 Human figures

Greek text

A name. Next to a drawing of a male head.

G0133 Human figures

Head and shoulders, looking left.

Photograph

G0395 Human figures

Male head.

Photograph ICCD N15469

Photograph by Jan Theo Bakker (high resolution).

G0036k Human figures

Perhaps the legs of a male figure.

Photograph

G0023 Masters and slaves

Drawing and Greek text

"Your mistress is far inferior to you".

Photograph.

G0037 Masters and slaves

Drawing

domesticus (or Domesticus?) grat[i]as aget dominu suo
[?] opto te bene (or opto te benei valea) [?] to.

A slave thanks his master and wishes him well.

G0259 Masters and slaves

HICEGOMENAEMI

"Here I bought (the slave) Menas".

G0367 Medicine

A EHI COMITIALE VA
A
NIHA

Perhaps about epilepsy (morbus comitialis).

G0279 Medicine

MIIDICAMI[---]
LINGAE BVBI[---]
BVS

About medicine and the plant lingua bubula (ox-tongue).

Cato, De Re Rustica 40: "cover the whole with ox-tongue, so that if it rains the water will not soak into the bark". See also Pliny, Natural History, 17, 14, 24, par. 112.

It has been used in history to induce courage, joy, merriment, exhilaration, and making "the mind glad". It was also ground up into a poultice, and used to treat bruises and abrasions.

Photograph

G0144 Mixed content

"Dates and accounts and notes drawn with many parallel lines, through which a diagonal line is drawn".

G0026 Mixed content

"Next to the door, on the right, a small boat, without sails, drawn with infinite accuracy; next to it there is a figure showing its right profile, wrapped in a cloak that seems to hide its legs, which cannot be seen. Behind, or resting on its shoulder, is a cornucopia which could indicate that this is a female figure, although its features are rather masculine... Below these there is a complete, very large circle."

G0090 Mixed content

[Photo nr. - layer - description]

1 - Layer 31.....VIII
2 - Layer 31 right....AIN HIVI
3 - Layer 30 left ....a boat
4 - Layer 29 left ....another boat?
5 - Layer 28....MARCUS AVR[e]LIVS NXX I/
6 - Layers 28/27 right....AXXX
7 - Layers 27/26....AXHMI
8 - Layer 26 right....X
9 - Layer 24 centre....M
10 - Layer 23 right....tally marks
11 - Layer 22 left....tally marks
12 - Layers 22/21 right....*AAXI
13 - Layer 21 left....?
14 - Layers 21/20/19 centre....rigging of a boat?
15 - Layer 18 centre....C_IIIINISAVIV
16 - Layer 16 centre....VI
17 - Layer 15....AIXI
18 - Layer 14 left....AEMILIVS IVNIOR
19 - Layer 14 right...._A_
20 - Layer 11 left....SIAAI
21 - Layer 11 centre....NVX
22 - Layer 10 left....IX__IIII
23 - Layer 8 centre....NVM
24 - Layer 7 centre/right....SVISH
25 - Layers 7/6/5 right....?

• Photographs: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | 24 | 25

• Photograph by Jan Theo Bakker: layer 28.
G0091 Mixed content

[Photo nr. - layer - description]

1 - Layer 33 left.....?
2 - Layer 33 right....rigging?
3 - Layer 32 left ....AICYC?
4 - Layer 32 centre ....?
5 - Layer 32 right...Steelyard or building?
6 - Layers 31 right....?
7 - Layers 30/29 right....?
8 - Layer 29 left/centre....SN I IVN RCVI AATAISI
9 - Layer 28 left....II IIIC I H X
10 - Layer 28 centre....X A W X II
11 - Layer 27 left....VTA__MVIIMI
12 - Layer 27/26 right....Rigging
13 - Layer 24 centre....I N
14 - Layers 23 left....STITIIIIAI
15 - Layer 23 centre/right ....II IIA IIII SIS IIII
16 - Layers 21 left....IVNIVS CHRIISIMVS
17 - Layer 20 left....?
18 - Layer 20 centre....F
19 - Layer 19/18 centre....A boat?
20 - Layers 21 to 18 right ....A boat?
21 - Layer 18 left/centre ....AHVIIIM____AIXIS
22 - Layer 15 left....AIIHII IIA III and a boat
23 - Layer 16/15 right ....?
24 - Layer 14 left....ABCD_FG
25 - Layer 13 centre....?
26 - Layer 12 left ....AN
27 - Layers 11 centre....NE AA NIV N
28 Layer 10 right....IVI

• Photographs: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | 24 | 25 | 26 | 27 | 28

• Photograph by Jan Theo Bakker: layers 21-20.
G0127 Mixed content

• Photographs:

G0388 Mixed content Various texts.
G0468 Mixed content

A number above a drawing of a tower?

Photograph ICCD N5410

G0393 Mixed content

AVE | RO(ma?)

With drawings of a head of a donkey and a palm branch.

G0378 Mixed content

Drawing

Below a drawing of a bird.

G0134 Mixed content

Drawing

"A slab bearing graffiti of an elephant, a web-footed horse, a four-legged beast with a mouse's snout, a helmeted soldier with shield and lance, a juggler, a boat with an oar".

Photograph

G0137 Mixed content

Drawing

Photograph ICCD N5389

G0088 Mixed content

Drawing

Left column, layer 27: the Greek alphabet.

• Photographs:

G0429 Mixed content

Drawings and text.

Photograph ICCD N14859

G0036 Mixed content

G0036a-l

Drawing

"... as well as boats ... there is a virile, nude figure of the athletic type, surrounded by animals amongst which two horses, a ram and a dog are recognisable." One person is wreathed.

G0499 Mixed content

Numbers and a ship?

Photograph ICCD N5411

G0512 Mixed content

Text and a drawing.

Photograph (high resolution).

G0460 Mixed content

Text and drawings.

Photograph ICCD N5404

G0109 Names

(centuria) RVFI

VARIVS
INGE[---]

G0092 Names

AVRELIVS HERMOGENES

G0089 Names

Drawing

• Photographs:

G0519 Names

Drawing

A Greek name.

G0108 Names

Drawing

An excubatorium is a small watch-post of the fire brigade. The date is March 18.

Photograph. Identification uncertain.

G0014 Names

Drawing

CAMAND[---]

Possibly a name (Gaius Amandus). In a shrine.

Photograph.

G0256 Names

FLORO ATINI

G0307 Names

Greek text

G0334 Names

Greek text

Photograph ICCD N5271

G0154 Names

Greek text

Part of a name, together with G0153.

Photograph ICCD N5259 (bottom right)

Photograph ICCD N5296 (bottom right)

G0153 Names

Greek text

Part of a name, together with G0154.

Photograph ICCD N5259 (bottom left)

Photograph ICCD N5296 (bottom left)

Photograph ICCD N5260 (bottom)

G0093 Names

HIRPINIVS DO[---]

G0298 Names

IANVARIA FVIT
IANVARIAS

Photograph

G0267 Names

LCFHIC
H BIN

The initials of someone who was "here"?

Photograph

G0126 Names

MARIVS
BASSINIAKCSL_OI
SANNIMO
ANIVE_O

• Photographs:

Photograph by Jan Theo Bakker (high resolution).

G0291 Names

MMISSXVSFEGIT

"[Name] made it".

G0304 Names

MRVSIILLIO COS SOLVI

The name is probably M. Rubellius. Cos may be a false reading, because a consul with the name Marcus Rubellius is not known.

G0518 Names

POMPEIVS
FIILIX

G0343 Names YACINTHVS
G0338 Numbers

* I I I

+ + + +

* + I I

Photograph

Photograph ICCD N5268

Photograph ICCD N5269

G0332 Numbers

* IIIIIIIIIIIIII

Photograph

G0237 Numbers

*
X
CX
X
XX

Photograph

G0408 Numbers

Photograph

G0475 Numbers

A number.

Photograph ICCD N5273

G0502 Numbers

A number.

Photograph ICCD N5414

G0381 Numbers

Drawing

G0073 Numbers

Drawing

Photograph

G0071 Numbers

Drawing

Photograph

G0074 Numbers

Drawing

Photograph

G0223 Numbers

Drawing

Photograph

Photograph by Mary Jane Cuyler (high resolution; 2013)

G0311 Numbers

Drawing

IOCINA
* C C C C C
X X V

Photograph

G0068 Numbers

Drawing

Surely modern ?!

Photograph

G0067 Numbers

Drawing

Surely modern ?!

Photograph

G0066 Numbers

Drawing

Surely modern ?!

Photograph

G0131 Numbers

Drawing

Tally marks.

Photograph

G0160 Numbers

HN IIII

Photograph

G0052 Numbers

I I I I I X I I I I I

Photograph

G0162 Numbers

IIII

Photograph

G0045 Numbers

IIIII

Photograph

G0182 Numbers

IIIIIII X IIIII X IIIIII X

Photograph

G0193 Numbers

IIIIV IIII D

Photograph

G0044 Numbers

IV

Photograph

G0402 Numbers

LXXVII.

Photograph

Photograph ICCD N5267

G0479 Numbers

Many numbers.

Photograph ICCD N5277

G0472 Numbers

Numbers.

Photograph ICCD N5257

G0486 Numbers

Numbers.

Photograph ICCD N5285

G0341 Numbers

Small crosses.

Photograph.

G0233 Numbers

Some lines and the text ...XV...

Photograph

G0180 Numbers

Tally marks.

Photograph

G0226 Numbers

Tally marks.

Photograph

G0174 Numbers

Tally marks.

Photograph

G0225 Numbers

Tally marks.

Photograph

G0208 Numbers Tallymarks

Photograph

G0345 Numbers

Tallymarks.

Photograph.

G0480 Numbers

Tallymarks.

Photograph ICCD N5278

G0484 Numbers

Tallymarks.

Photograph ICCD N5283

G0344 Numbers

Tallymarks.

Photograph.

G0217 Numbers

Tallymarks

Photograph

G0055 Numbers

Tallymarks

Photograph

G0054 Numbers

Tallymarks

Photograph

G0340 Numbers

Tallymarks

Photograph

Photograph ICCD N5266

G0158 Numbers

X H * I I

Photograph

G0049 Numbers

X X I I

Photograph

G0232 Numbers

X X X X I

Photograph

G0220 Numbers

XIII

Photograph

G0209 Numbers

XIIII

Photograph

G0042 Numbers

XIIIII.IIIIIII..

Photograph

G0485 Numbers.

Numbers.

Photograph ICCD N5284

G0094 People - About people

[---]SVENVSTVSOMOBON\[---]

---iu]s Venustus (h)omo bonu[s] (tus was written above the line).

"... Venustus is a good man".

On a brick.

G0255 People - About people

ACTORES P ACTI MARTIALIS
OCCA
NITE ERAVTRYOLI
EMITTI
T TIBYRTYO ORAMT

Possibly: "The stewards of Publius Actius Martialis pray that ... releases him from the ocean ... to (his estate in) Tibur".

G0372 People - About people

CALVIUS [---]ILIGIVS EST
POMPTINIVS D[---]ONVS FE
LIG SIT ICIL ATEDVSIS ETREIIR
ARRIOMMO BONVS EST
CALVVS CEPIDIAM PVELLAM ET DARE
AIONVVS
ET MVLIERII TVVS IOLI ET SETIMINVS EST

Comments about a number of people. "Calvius ... Pomptinius ... is happy (?) ...Arri(us) is a good man." Then something is said about a girl and a wife.

G0308 People - About people

Drawing

VIII IDVS SIIPTIIMBRIIS
LICINIVS HOSPIIS V
IGVIT

"On September 6 the host Licinius ...".

Photograph

G0305 People - About people

Greek text

"Every comer scrawls the walls with his graffiti,
The only one who's written none is me.
Bugger all these scrawlers! My entreaty
Is to call them epitoechographs [writers on the wall] like me."

Photograph

G0268 People - About people

Greek text

"Every comer scrawls the walls with his graffiti,
The only one who's written none is me."

Photograph

G0274 People - About people

HOC QUI SCRIP[---]
[---] N [---]
GIT INFRA

"He who wrote this ... below".

G0509 People - About people

LVRE SIC EXPIRIS ("Lurius, in this way you will die"). Was this really a name, or was it "lupus" (wolf), the P later changed to an R?

Photograph Kent-Berlin

G0302 People - About people

MVLVSAMETPATICAM

"The wall loves the perverted woman" (?)

G0287 People - About people

OBIILIA SVO
[---]
OLATIO VA(le)

"Obelia to her ..., greetings".

G0288 People - About people

SIICVNDE
PALICAR
PVS IIS

Secunde, Policarpus es? ("Secundus, you are ...").

G0294 People - About people

STEPI
STEPHA
NEFASTI
AT RVFIONE

Possibly: "Rufio dislikes Stephanus!" (or the other way around).

G0371 People - About people

SVIIISAMIVS

Perhaps Sum Samius ("I am from Samos").

G0168 People - Famous people

Drawing

Greek text

"Diogenes the Cynic". Is someone in the building being compared to Diogenes and his doglike behaviour?

G0380 People - Famous people

Drawing

The first words of the Aeneid of Vergilius.

G0021 Religion

Drawing

A parallel from Rome suggests that the first line contained the names of the seven planets. The numbers indicate the days of the month.

G0072 Religion - Christianity

Drawing

The chi-rho monogram.

Photograph

G0282 Religion - Christianity

EX PERSECVNDE DOMINII SALVTIS EME

"Lord give safety from the persecutor". (?)

G0422 Religion - Chritianity

LEGE ET INTELLIGE MVTV LOQVI AD MACELLV(M)

"Read and understand that a dumb man has recovered his speech in the Market"

Photograph

Photograph

G0354 Religion - Cult of Mithras

DOMINVS SOL
HIC AVITAT

Dominus Sol | hic avitat = Dominus Sol hic habitat.

"Lord Sun lives here".

The reference is probably to Sol-Mithras.

Photograph by Jan Theo Bakker.

G0015 Religion - Cult of Mithras

Drawing

In a mithraeum. In the left column possibly the names of slaves (the first name may be Hylas). In the right column possibly gifts to Mithras, amongst which was wine. BINV may be vinv[m]. The X with a vertical bar may stand for denarius. The lines end with numbers.

Below the niche of mithraeum.

Photograph.

G0105 Religion - Imperial cult

[---]DISIVS or I/STVS

Near a shrine.

G0104 Religion - Imperial cult

AELIVS MASVETVS
EX ACTVS LATER[---]VM

Near a shrine.

G0101 Religion - Imperial cult

C LICINIVS CHO? FELIX
MONNA OMNIBVS SVCC
VRIS FELICITER VII

Near a shrine.

G0102 Religion - Imperial cult

C LICINIVS FELIX
D[
1]Q TVM[---]

Near a shrine.

G0107 Religion - Imperial cult

C SALVIVS OPTATVS

Near a shrine.

G0106 Religion - Imperial cult

CLAVDI[---]
Q MARCIY FELIX

Near a shrine.

G0011 Religion - Imperial cult

Coh(orte) VII (or VI) (centuria) Ost(iensis) imp(erante)
An(tonino) co(n)s(ulibus) L[a]eto et Ce
riale sebarius
Calpurnius, X
.

In a tabula ansata: "Calpurnius, night-watchman from the centuria of Ostiensis, from the seventh (or sixth) cohors, during the reign of Caracalla, in the year of consuls Laetus and Cerialis (215 AD), X". Sebarius = sebaciarius, night-watchman. The X means vota decennalia.

In a shrine.

Photograph by Jan Theo Bakker.

G0097 Religion - Imperial cult

Drawing

"For the safety of our lord Severus Alexander, the pious, the happy, Augustus. We, the soldiers of the first cohort of the fire-fighters, the Severan, were stationed in these barracks for 30 days".

In a shrine.

G0098 Religion - Imperial cult

Drawing

]a tutus | ?um? sicinius [fide?]lis clodius floridianus | mantius fel[i]x feliciter.

In a shrine.

G0013 Religion - Imperial cult

Drawing

Ceriale.

A short way to indicate the year 215 AD, Cerialis being one of the two eponymous consuls.

In a shrine.

Photograph.

G0099 Religion - Imperial cult

Drawing

In a shrine.

G0100 Religion - Imperial cult

Drawing

In a shrine.

Lines 1-6 were written in a tabula ansata. This and the word solv(it?) indicate the fulfilment of a vow. The graffito was apparently dated (cos).

G0012 Religion - Imperial cult

Drawing

Marius | Anna | VII Kal Maias (April 25th).

In a shrine.

Photograph.

G0096 Religion - Imperial cult

IVLIVS FAVSTIN[---]
MIL BUCHI[---]


PRIMIGENIAD[---]

Buchi[nator] is probably bucinator, a trumpeter. PRIMIGENIAD was written across the name Iulius Faustinus.

In a shrine.

G0095 Religion - Imperial cult

M MIRENIVS IVLIVS
BVCINATOR COH VII VIG

Mirenius or Myrenius. Bucinator means trumpeter.

In a shrine.

G0103 Religion - Imperial cult

SVLPICIVS
SILVINVS
NONAS
FECIT

Near a shrine.

G0251 Religion - Imperial cult

TMARCIVS
INGIINVS
SIIRVS DIIVORVM
OMMO BONVS

T. Marcius
ingenu[u]s
(or Ingenu[u]s)
servus de{v}orum
[h]om{m}o bonus
.

"T. Marcius Ingenu(u)s [a free man], slave of the deified Emperors, a good man".

Note the intentional opposition between ingenuus and servus.

Photograph ICCD N14879

G0260 Religion - Traditional religion

Drawing and Greek text

"Righteous Hermes (Mercurius), bring profit to Hektikos."

Photograph

G0358 Religion - Traditional religion

Drawing

Idus Dec (?) | XV Kal Nov (December 13th; October 18th).

On the back wall of the niche of a lararium.

Photograph by Jan Theo Bakker.

G0261 Religion - Traditional religion

Drawing

MERCVR VLS P CO
AES SOLVVIMVS

Mercur(io) v(otum) l(ibens) s(olvit) or s(olverunt) ...

About the fulfilment of a vow to Mercurius.

Photograph

Photograph ICCD N5249

Photograph ICCD N5253

G0085 Religion - Traditional religion

Drawing

NEPTUNE [--] E

Photograph

G0199 Religion - Traditional religion

Drawing

VT A[_ _ _ _ _ _ ]SIT
PRO SALVTE SVA
ET SVORVM
XII KAL(ENDAS) AVG[u]STAS
(July 21)
PROMISIT VOTVM
LVCCEIA PRIMITIVA
FORTVNAE TAVRIA
NENSI

A woman named Lucceia Primitiva promises that she will thank a deity, Fortuna Taurianensis, when she and those who are dear to her will be in good health, after a danger which is mentioned in the first, mutilated line. It is unlikely that this Fortuna is the protective deity of Taurianum, a town in the south of Italy. More likely there is a relation with the cognomen Taurianus, that is documented in the Serapeum (III,XVII,4).

Photograph (only the last five rows can be seen on this photograph).

Photograph by Mary Jane Cuyler (high resolution; 2013).

G0349 Religion - Traditional religion

HERMAE

On a brick of a pier of the main entrance to a building. Later covered with plaster.

Photograph.

G0135 Religion - Traditional religion

SATVR

On a marble fragment.

G0421 Ships

Photograph

G0036d Ships

A boat.

Photograph

Photograph ICCD N5289

G0214 Ships

A boat.

Photograph

G0205 Ships

A boat.

Photograph

G0041 Ships

A boat.

Photograph

G0224 Ships

A boat.

Photograph

G0046 Ships

A boat.

Photograph

G0036e Ships

A boat.

Photograph

G0321 Ships

A boat.

Photograph

G0248 Ships

A boat.

Photograph

G0169 Ships

A boat?

Photograph

G0494 Ships

A ship (or two ships above each other?).

Photograph ICCD N5295

G0428 Ships

A ship.

Photograph ICCD N14858

G0431 Ships

A ship.

Photograph ICCD N14862

G0496 Ships

A ship.

Photograph ICCD N5298

G0497 Ships

A ship.

Photograph ICCD N5307

G0481 Ships

A ship?

Photograph ICCD N5279

G0384 Ships

ABI

"Go!" Next to a drawing of a ship.

G0365a-c Ships Drawing
G0177 Ships

Drawing

A boat with full rigging.

Photograph

G0112 Ships

Drawing

A boat. The short mast at one end of the boat indicates that it is a tow-boat.

Photograph

G0312 Ships

Drawing

A boat.

Photograph

Drawing

A face on the prow can be viewed in two ways. Here the head is looking straight forward.

Photograph

Drawing

Here the head is looking to its right and slightly downwards.

Photograph

G0119 Ships

Drawing

A person in a small boat.

Photograph

G0389 Ships

Drawing

A prow of a boat.

G0394 Ships

Drawing

A ship.

Photograph ICCD N5259

Photograph ICCD N5296

G0392 Ships

Drawing

Drawing

A boat.

G0024 Ships

Drawing

Near "boats drawn with a very light hand, with great attention given to the details of the keel and sails."

Photograph.

G0171 Ships

Part of a boat?

Photograph

G0036f Ships

Possibly a boat.

Photograph

G0009 Ships

Possibly a ship's rigging.

Photograph.

G0036g Ships

The prow of a boat.

Photograph

G0314 Ships

The prow of a boat.

Photograph

G0469 Ships

The prow of a boat.

Photograph ICCD N5254

G0170 Ships

The prow of a boat?

Photograph

G0207 Ships

The rigging of a boat?

Photograph

G0419 Towers, cranes

Photograph

G0401 Towers, cranes

A crane.

Photograph

G0008 Towers, cranes

A crane?

Photograph.

G0017 Towers, cranes

A crane?

Photograph.

G0083 Towers, cranes

A drawing of a crane?

Photograph

G0018 Towers, cranes

A tower with a pyramidal shape, perhaps a crane, and the letters IRIIN.

Photograph.

G0159 Towers, cranes

A tower with a pyramidal shape, perhaps a crane.

Photograph

G0448 Towers, cranes

A tower.

Photograph ICCD N14854

G0478 Towers, cranes

A tower.

Photograph ICCD N5276

G0200 Towers, cranes

Drawing

A structure looking like a tower or an obelisk, and the letters MAXI in a tabula ansata.

Photograph

G0201 Towers, cranes

Drawing

A structure looking like a tower or an obelisk.

Photograph

G0315 Towers, cranes

Drawing

A structure looking like a tower.

Photograph

G0476 Towers, cranes

Tallymarks next to a tower.

Photograph ICCD N5274

G0325 Unclassified texts

(ian/febr)VARIAS

Either a name or a month.

Photograph

G0339 Unclassified texts

* +

X X I

I I X O

Photograph

Photograph ICCD N5269

G0151 Unclassified texts

. . . . N I
. . . . I I N

On a mithraeum. The Greek letter psi may be in the upper left part.

Photograph

Photograph by Jan Theo Bakker (high resolution)

G0149 Unclassified texts

. . . .
H I I I X I V

On a mithraeum.

Photograph

Photograph by Jan Theo Bakker (high resolution)

G0515 Unclassified texts

[---] AVDACE

The first letter is not certain. Perhaps the name Audax (dative, accusative or ablative) or the adjective.

G0275 Unclassified texts

[---] CISTI. IIXXI
[---] LAVIAM
[---] A V
CIMI CACIIS
DIO [---] SCIRE
ESSEQV A
DVTE

Photograph

G0057 Unclassified texts

[---]RDVS

Photograph

G0087 Unclassified texts

[---]YLL[---]
[---]XXX\[---]

G0412 Unclassified texts

Photograph

G0407 Unclassified texts

Photograph

G0397 Unclassified texts

Photograph

G0145 Unclassified texts

Photograph

G0183 Unclassified texts

A few letters.

Photograph

Photograph by Jan Theo Bakker.

G0272 Unclassified texts

A MARIT

G0356 Unclassified texts

A single line of text

Photograph.

G0364 Unclassified texts

AMA PVERVM

G0192 Unclassified texts

ANNA SX IIIV
AKSA

Photograph

G0369 Unclassified texts AVLA
G0283 Unclassified texts

BVBINNI

G0336 Unclassified texts

C N V _ M

N A _ K A O P I R E

Photograph

G0051 Unclassified texts

C X G I I I I

Photograph

G0141 Unclassified texts

Drawing

G0140 Unclassified texts

Drawing

G0139 Unclassified texts

Drawing

G0128 Unclassified texts

Drawing

G0222 Unclassified texts

Drawing

Photograph

G0348 Unclassified texts

Drawing

Photograph.

G0218 Unclassified texts

Drawing

A E V T V S

Photograph

G0062 Unclassified texts

Drawing

From the floor of the latrine.

Photograph

G0155 Unclassified texts

Drawing

Greek text

Photograph

G0025 Unclassified texts

Drawing

Ianuarias?

G0076 Unclassified texts

Drawing

N

Photograph

G0285 Unclassified texts

Drawing

NIHILI PHPHOR

Photograph

G0146 Unclassified texts

Drawing

On bricks.

G0138 Unclassified texts

Drawing

This Greek text and this Greek text have been suggested for lines 4-6.

Photograph ICCD N5390

G0195 Unclassified texts

Drawing

VIRTVS

Photograph

G0254 Unclassified texts

Drawing

VITIASVA

A reference to vices?

Photograph.

G0132 Unclassified texts

Drawing

W
T

Photograph

G0231 Unclassified texts

Dructus

G0032 Unclassified texts

ecare pod

G0003 Unclassified texts

EVT

Photograph.

G0444 Unclassified texts

First hand: LCCV | Second hand: [o]MNIBVS VLAN[---]?

Photograph ICCD N14877

G0281 Unclassified texts

FVGII ORODIIRASIO DII SIICVS ICMI
MII
DVTI[---]CISIS ML
E

Line 2 was written in the right half of the graffito.

Photograph

G0295 Unclassified texts

GOMIIMIIMINI FVISSIIT

G0377 Unclassified texts Greek text
G0152 Unclassified texts

Greek text

G0297 Unclassified texts

Greek text

G0292 Unclassified texts

Greek text

G0290 Unclassified texts

Greek text

G0273 Unclassified texts

Greek text

G0269 Unclassified texts

Greek text

Photograph

Photograph ICCD N5407 (top)

G0156 Unclassified texts

Greek text

Approximately 12 letters are missing at the start. The name of a person may have been here. The word may also belong to (part of) a hexametric phrase found elsewhere in Ostia:

Drawing

G0271 Unclassified texts

Greek text

In a tabula ansata.

Photograph

Photograph ICCD N5407 (bottom)

G0150 Unclassified texts

H I . . . .
. . . .
X

On a mithraeum.

Photograph

Photograph by Jan Theo Bakker (high resolution)

G0148 Unclassified texts

I A N H C A S
L I I A I
I I V C
C H O

On a mithraeum. The Greek letter theta may be in the lower right part.

Photograph

• Photographs by Jan Theo Bakker (high resolution): general view | detail of upper left part | detail of lower right part

G0040 Unclassified texts

I I I V M A T I L L S I A I

Photograph.

G0337 Unclassified texts

I I V _

Photograph

G0303 Unclassified texts

JALISVS SAALBIVS SAINIIEMIIIIA
PEPERIT INSANVSAICAVE
IE PIITVVQVIIDII
CAVERNE

 

G0235 Unclassified texts

LHL

Photograph

G0039 Unclassified texts

M E T A T V

Photograph

G0058 Unclassified texts

MA

Photograph

G0239 Unclassified texts

Many letters.

Photograph

G0300 Unclassified texts

MORIIM SAN

"The conduct ...".

G0376 Unclassified texts

NERONII EMAOPII
NECA DIGNA PO

A reference to the Emperor Nero?

G0038 Unclassified texts

O _ A N C R O

Photograph

G0517 Unclassified texts

PC

G0246 Unclassified texts

Possibly text.

Photograph

G0301 Unclassified texts

QVO NON FACITI INVRIAM

About injustice?

G0142 Unclassified texts

ROMA

G0400 Unclassified texts

ROMA.

Photograph

G0383 Unclassified texts

ROMAN
VS FELIX

G0086 Unclassified texts

S
QVA

G0464 Unclassified texts

Text and lines.

Photograph ICCD N14880

G0247 Unclassified texts

Text and/or a drawing.

Photograph

G0327 Unclassified texts

Text.

Photograph

G0317 Unclassified texts

Text.

Photograph

G0430 Unclassified texts

Text.

Photograph ICCD N14861

G0434 Unclassified texts

Text.

Photograph ICCD N14865

G0436 Unclassified texts

Text.

Photograph ICCD N14867

G0449 Unclassified texts

Text.

Photograph ICCD N14868

G0465 Unclassified texts

Text.

Photograph ICCD N14881 (turned 90 degrees to the left)

G0453 Unclassified texts

Text.

Photograph ICCD N5251

G0454 Unclassified texts

Text.

Photograph ICCD N5252

G0470 Unclassified texts

Text.

Photograph ICCD N5255

G0473 Unclassified texts

Text.

Photograph ICCD N5258

G0482 Unclassified texts

Text.

Photograph ICCD N5280

G0483 Unclassified texts

Text.

Photograph ICCD N5282

G0487 Unclassified texts

Text.

Photograph ICCD N5286

G0495 Unclassified texts

Text.

Photograph ICCD N5297

G0498 Unclassified texts

Text.

Photograph ICCD N5308

G0455 Unclassified texts

Text.

Photograph ICCD N5398

G0456 Unclassified texts

Text.

Photograph ICCD N5399

G0457 Unclassified texts

Text.

Photograph ICCD N5400

G0458 Unclassified texts

Text.

Photograph ICCD N5401

G0459 Unclassified texts

Text.

Photograph ICCD N5403

G0461 Unclassified texts

Text.

Photograph ICCD N5405

G0462 Unclassified texts

Text.

Photograph ICCD N5406

G0463 Unclassified texts

Text.

Photograph ICCD N5408

G0500 Unclassified texts

Text.

Photograph ICCD N5412

G0501 Unclassified texts

Text.

Photograph ICCD N5413

G0466 Unclassified texts

Text.

Photograph ICCD N5422

G0511 Unclassified texts

Text.

Photograph (high resolution).

G0514 Unclassified texts

Text.

Photograph by Jan Theo Bakker (high resolution).

G0489 Unclassified texts

Text?

Photograph ICCD N5288

G0504 Unclassified texts

Text?

Photograph ICCD N5416

G0289 Unclassified texts

Text

Photograph

G0157 Unclassified texts

Three (Greek?) letters.

Photograph

G0211 Unclassified texts

Three lines of (Greek?) text.

Photograph

G0164 Unclassified texts

Two lines of Greek (?) text.

Photograph

G0221 Unclassified texts

Two lines of Greek text.

Photograph

G0215 Unclassified texts

Two lines of Greek text.

Photograph

G0210 Unclassified texts

Two lines of text.

Photograph

G0050 Unclassified texts

V E I _ I

Photograph

G0048 Unclassified texts

V I F D

Photograph

G0047 Unclassified texts

V T R _

Photograph

G0252 Unclassified texts

VATIITIIRII

G0181 Unclassified texts

XIA *

Photograph

G0516 Unclassified texts

XLVX

Perhaps a number (but XV is not part of the Roman numerical system) or the word lux.

G0404 Unclassified texts

XV KAL A.

Photograph

G0122 Unclassified texts.

Drawing

PERFIXI

From perfigo, to pierce through?

Photograph

G0420 Unidentified objects

Photograph

G0417 Unidentified objects

Photograph

G0416 Unidentified objects

Photograph

G0411 Unidentified objects

Photograph

G0409 Unidentified objects

Photograph

G0405 Unidentified objects

Photograph

G0403 Unidentified objects

Photograph

G0242 Unidentified objects

A drawing.

Photograph

G0243 Unidentified objects

A drawing.

Photograph

G0043 Unidentified objects

A few lines.

Photograph

G0206 Unidentified objects

A few lines.

Photograph

G0194 Unidentified objects

A few lines.

Photograph

G0173 Unidentified objects

A few lines.

Photograph

G0360 Unidentified objects

A few lines.

Photograph.

G0019 Unidentified objects

A few lines.

Photograph.

G0245 Unidentified objects

A rectangle.

Photograph

G0244 Unidentified objects

A rectangle.

Photograph

G0227 Unidentified objects

Concentric circles and some lines.

Photograph

G0111 Unidentified objects

Curved lines.

Photograph

G0328 Unidentified objects

Drawing.

Photograph

G0326 Unidentified objects

Drawing.

Photograph

G0323 Unidentified objects

Drawing.

Photograph

G0322 Unidentified objects

Drawing.

Photograph

G0320 Unidentified objects

Drawing.

Photograph

G0319 Unidentified objects

Drawing.

Photograph

G0318 Unidentified objects

Drawing.

Photograph

G0423 Unidentified objects

Drawing.

Photograph ICCD N14847

G0424 Unidentified objects

Drawing.

Photograph ICCD N14850

G0425 Unidentified objects

Drawing.

Photograph ICCD N14855

G0474 Unidentified objects

Drawing.

Photograph ICCD N5272

G0477 Unidentified objects

Drawing.

Photograph ICCD N5275

G0427 Unidentified objects

Drawing?

Photograph ICCD N14857

G0070 Unidentified objects

Drawing

Photograph

G0069 Unidentified objects

Drawing

Photograph

G0065 Unidentified objects

Drawing

Photograph

G0116 Unidentified objects

Drawing

Photograph

G0433 Unidentified objects

Drawings.

Photograph ICCD N14864

G0435 Unidentified objects

Drawings.

Photograph ICCD N14866 (turned 90 degrees?)

G0432 Unidentified objects

Drawings?

Photograph ICCD N14863

G0505 Unidentified objects

Drawings?

Photograph ICCD N5417

G0506 Unidentified objects

Drawings?

Photograph ICCD N5418

G0507 Unidentified objects

Drawings?

Photograph ICCD N5419

G0005 Unidentified objects

Grooves.

Photograph.

G0061 Unidentified objects

Lines.

Photograph

G0238 Unidentified objects

Lines.

Photograph

G0236 Unidentified objects

Lines.

Photograph

G0447 Unidentified objects

Lines.

Photograph ICCD N14848

G0438 Unidentified objects

Lines.

Photograph ICCD N14852

G0439 Unidentified objects

Lines.

Photograph ICCD N14870

G0440 Unidentified objects

Lines.

Photograph ICCD N14871

G0441 Unidentified objects

Lines.

Photograph ICCD N14873

G0442 Unidentified objects

Lines.

Photograph ICCD N14875

G0443 Unidentified objects

Lines.

Photograph ICCD N14876

G0450 Unidentified objects

Lines.

Photograph ICCD N14878 (turned 180 degrees?)

G0471 Unidentified objects

Lines.

Photograph ICCD N5256

G0488 Unidentified objects

Lines.

Photograph ICCD N5287

G0490 Unidentified objects

Lines.

Photograph ICCD N5291

G0491 Unidentified objects

Lines.

Photograph ICCD N5292

G0492 Unidentified objects

Lines.

Photograph ICCD N5293

G0493 Unidentified objects

Lines.

Photograph ICCD N5294

G0503 Unidentified objects

Lines.

Photograph ICCD N5415

G0234 Vessels

An amphora?

Photograph

G0361 Vessels

An amphora?

Photograph.

G0330 Vessels

Drawing

An amphora.

Photograph

G0262 Word games

Drawing

The beginning of a versus recurrens (palindrome) by Sidonius Apollinaris (c. 430 - after 489 AD): Roma tibi subito motibus ibit amor ("Rome, your love, will suddenly collapse in disturbances").

G0110 Word games

Drawing

This is a word-square and palindrome. The text can be read in four directions.

G0249 Word games

LITTIIRA PRIMA DOLIIT LVBIIT
ALTIIRA TIIRTIA MITTIT QUARTA DOLIIT
FACTI QUINTA HABIIT INVIDIAM

Usually thought to be about the five vowels as exclamations: A is related to pain, E to happiness, I to being sent off (ire), O to pain, and U to jealousy or bearing a grudge.

Lebek suggests a slightly different reading and interpretation:
Littera prima dolet, iubet
altera, tertia mittit, quarta docet,
facti quinta habet invidiam
.
He also suggests that the five letters form a word.

Littera prima dolet: a ("Ah!")
iubet altera: s, pronounced as es ("Be!"), from esse
tertia mittit: i ("Go!"), from ire
quarta docet: n, pronounced as en ("See there!")
facti quinta habet invidiam: e ("Alas!")

The word is the vocative asine, i.e. blockhead, Dummkopf.

Could it be that this is a Christian graffito? The letters do not describe stupidity. Nor is there a reason for the person who has just solved the riddle to feel stupid. Perhaps we should take them as serious statements, in which case we may remember a graffito from Rome: a drawing of a crucified man with the head of an ass, someone looking at him, and the text "Alexamenos worships his God".

Photograph ICCD E40728

G0250 Word games

PRIMA LITIIRA SIMILIS IIST QVARTII SIMILIS IIT QVINTA
SIICVNDAII TIIRTI [---] CVM SIIXTA NOMINA
NOMINA
QVAIIS TA HOC VIIRSICVLO CITTIIRIIDII
TAN

According to Calza this riddle is about the six vowels, a e i o u y. For the third and fourth line Calza suggests Nomina | quaes[i]ta hoc versiculo ci[to] red[das]. Della Corte saw traces of an s after rede.

Lebek has shown that this interpretation is wrong. The riddle is a variation or incorrect version of a known verse: Prima sonat quartae, respondet quinta secundae, tertia cum sexta: nomen habebit avis ("The first sounds like the fourth, the fifth corresponds with the second, the third with the sixth: the bird will have a name").

The solution is turtur, i.e. turtle-dove.

The problem with the interpretation of the Ostian graffito is the plural nomina. Lebek suggests that perhaps we should be thinking of more than one word: turtur, furfur, murmur, tortor etc., but he adds that a riddle with many answers is not a good riddle.

Possibly this was a well-known riddle. In that case the hint nomen habebit avis was superfluous. The plural nomina may lead us to another word for dove, namely columba, the Christian dove (see e.g. Matthew 3,16; baptism of Christ).

The first photograph below shows SIMILIS IIT QV and the second, CVM SIIXTA

Photograph

Photograph

G0263 Word games

ROMA

Written near the beginning of the word game ROMA TIBI.